Design a Comprehensive Learning and Development Leadership ProgramAs the executive learning and development director for a midsized global petroleum organization, you have been asked by the chief human resources officer (CHRO) to create a report on how you envision the design of a new leadership program for the organization’s 50 management and executives in leadership teams across four different departments: sales, marketing, finance, and engineering. These teams span three countries: the United States, Canada, and Mexico. In your report, please include the elements below.Include an introductory paragraph with the name of your fictitious company, where the home office is located (you choose this), how long the company has been in business, and some background information. Do not use the name of or information about a real company.Discuss your leadership development strategy, and give a vision to this strategy. For example, what are the outcomes of having a leadership development program for the organization?Discuss how you plan to assess leadership capabilities.Explain two to three assessment tools that you will use to identify leadership capabilities for each department.Explain two to three leadership development methods for each department, taking into consideration cultures in each region—the United States, Canada, and Mexico.Then, conclude your report by describing the benefits that a formal leadership development program will have on the organization. For example, explain why a leadership development program is important and how it enhances the organization’s competitiveness.Your completed scholarly activity must be at least two pages in length and include at least three outside sources. Adhere to APA guidelines when constructing this assignment, and include in-text citations and references for all sources that are used. Please note that no abstract is needed.
Design a Comprehensive Learning and Development Leadership Program As the executive learning and development director for a midsized global petroleum organization, you have been asked by the chief hum
European Journal of Business and Management ISSN 2222-1905 (Paper) ISSN 2222-2839 (Online) Vol.5, No.2, 2013 243 Training and Development Program and its Benefits t o Employee and Organization: A Conceptual Study Khawaja Jehanzeb 1, 2* ; Dr. Nadeem Ahmed Bashir 1 1 Department of Management, College of Business Admin istration, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia 2Department of Management and Human Resource Develop ment, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Johor, Malaysia *E-mail of the corresponding author: [email protected] Abstract The purpose of this paper is to present a conceptua l study established on the employee training and de velopment program and its benefits. This paper will inspect t he structure and elements of employee training and development program and later the study present what are the po sitive outcomes for employees and organizations. Or ganizations find it difficult to stay competitive in recent glo bal economy. Importance of employee development pro gram is growing for the organizations those pursuing to rec eive an advantage among competitors. Employees are esteemed resource of the organization and success or failure of the organization relay on the performance of em ployees. Therefore, organizations are financing large amount on employee training and development programs. Fur thermore, in training program it is supportive for companies to emphasis on knowledge, expertise and ability of employees. There is substantial discussion among professionals and researchers on the affect that development program has on both employee and organization. The study described here is a vigilant assessment of literature on fundamental of employee development program and its benefits to or ganizations and employees. Keywords: Training design, training component, training benef its 1.0 Background In 1970s, the efforts of career planning and develo pment were mainly dedicated on young employees thos e demonstrate to have a high potential. It has been s uggested for the organizations to make plan for fut ure and provide training and development to their fresh employees f or the high-ranking positions in future (Moses 1999). However, the career path model develops very well through th e conservative commitment which employees would off er to their organization. This commitment can be describe d as emotional agreement by which employers are com monly guaranteed the loyalty for long term commitment wit h organization in result of providing employees work safety, chances for advancement in career, and training opp ortunities (Feldman 2000). The proficiency to acquire on the commitment promptly on the top of organizations red uced during 1980s when organizations were trying to moving a flat hierarchy where fewer opportunities for promot ion. In 1950s a particular number of organizations adopted the similar way to train their employees. However, in 1950s Crotonville Management Developmen t Institute has developed by General Electric (Gerbman 2000). In st art of 1960 MacDonald also followed this trend and start Hamburger University for the training of their empl oyees. Therefore currently maximum number of organi zations emphasized on the training and development of the e mployees. 2.0 Introduction In every sector the accomplishment of any organizat ion is tremendously relay on its employees. However , there are different other aspects that perform a major part; an organization need to ensure efficient employees in line with financially dominant and competitive in the market. Therefore to sustain this valuable human resource, organizations required to be conscious about the job satisfaction and retention of employees. Some of the organizati ons think that employees are looking for only financial profits fr om their works. This statement neglects high signif icance that most of the employees placed there selves on the inheren t benefits of their professions. Consequently, it is not just employee job satisfaction and retention but it has undesirable effects on the organizations. Every org anization should European Journal of Business and Management ISSN 2222-1905 (Paper) ISSN 2222-2839 (Online) Vol.5, No.2, 2013 244 have the employees, who are capable to swiftly adju st in continuously fluctuating business environment. Today most of the companies are investing a lot of money on th e training and development of employees in order to remain competitive and successful part of the organization . The importance of training for employees is rapid ly growing and organizations are using this tool to compete with t heir competitors in the market. There is momentous discussion between scholars and professionals that training and development program has effective impact on objectives of employee and orga nizations. Some of the scholars suggest that training opportunities increase in high employee turnover wh ereas the other claimed that training is an instrument which is beneficial for employee retention (Colarelli and Mo ntei 1996; Becker 1993). Irrespective of all discussion, most of writers agree that employee training is a complicat ed human resource practice that can expressively in fluence on the accomplishment of the organizations. Furthermore, o rganizations are struggling to get success in the worldwide economy, trying to differentiate on the basis of ab ilities, information, and enthusiasm of their workforce. Reference to a current report prepared by American Society fo r Training and Development, organizations are spend ing more than $126 billion yearly on employee training and d evelopment (Paradise 2007). Training is an organize d method of learning and development which expand the efficienc y of individual, group, and the organization (Goldstein and Ford 2002). Development mentions the accomplishment s leading to gaining of new abilities and skills for personal growth of employees. Furthermore, it is usually cha llenging to determine whether a precise exploration study reports to training, development, or both. In the rest of a ll this assessment, we used the term “training” to mention training and development. 3.0 Literature Review 3.1 Training and Development Program Internationally different companies provides traini ng and development program to their employees for t he improvement of their skills and abilities. In the s tart of 90s Sears Credit initiated a key rearrangem ent and retorted with a career-development programs. This program wa s developed for employee in order to line up their skills with changing jobs and also ensured that program was add ing value for the growth of their organization. Companies also think that they were not allocating career opportun ities to their employees with acquaintances and abi lities to get benefit from these opportunities (O’Herron and Simo nsen 1995). JC Penny, countrywide wholesale departm ental store, developed a virtual university to support th e employees to get abilities and skills as required by their jobs (Garger 1999). Tires Plus, tire retailer based on M innesota, established Tires Plus University to its employees to increase recruitment, retain employees of the store , and fill up the key positions and augments whole improvement of the employees. U.S. Tsubaki, Illinois, established UST University to provide and calculate training an d organizational development programs that fulfill th e organizational and individual needs of the organi zations (Callahan 2000). All over the world different compa nies are providing different programs for the betterment and skill improvement of their employees which are based on s ame logic. Mel Kleiman (2000) described that the essentials parts of a worthy employee training program are const ructed on orientation, management skills, and operational ski lls of employees. These theories are the groundwork of any employee development program. Janet Kottke (1999) d escribed that employee development programs must be comprises with core proficiencies, appropriate stru cture through which organizations develop their bus inesses at corporate level. The basic function of the theory i s to gain knowledge, cooperation, inventive thinkin g and resolving problem (Kottke 1999). Fundamental goals of several employee development programs are to deliver the m ission of the organization and support workers to learn the c ulture of the organization (Gerbman 2000). These ob jectives provide help to the strategic goals of business by facilitating learning chances and support organizational culture (Kottke 1999). The requirements for technical train ing program for employees raised their job satisfaction and help to understand the culture of organization, which le ad to the success of the organization. We must take care about these elements that employee should be updated with the present knowledge of the job. Employee will be more productive, if companies provide them training as p er the requirement of the job. European Journal of Business and Management ISSN 2222-1905 (Paper) ISSN 2222-2839 (Online) Vol.5, No.2, 2013 245 Today most of the organizations have built up diffe rent programs for the training and development of their employees. Usually companies offered tuition reimbu rsement package to their employees so that they can improve their knowledge and education. It has been found by the Corporate University that almost 10 percent of employees are entitled for this benefit (Rosenwald 2000). Fur thermore, only senior management and those employee s who are at top level are entitled for tuition reimbursement (Rosenwald 2000). As a result thereof, many organi zations conduct in-house training programs for their employees that are more beneficial and cheap. Training section of the organizations attempts to concentrate on particular job proficiency whereas the corporate department i s proactive with an additional strategic approach. Training and development program is a planned education compone nt and with exceptional method for sharing the culture of the organization, which moves from one job skills t o understand the workplace skill, developing leadership, innovat ive thinking and problem resolving (Meister, 1998). Employee development programs includes a variety of teaching technique, schedule, and helping learning environment that ensure employee to improve their skills and later a pply on their jobs (Gerbamn 2000). 3.2 Components of Training and Development Program There is no particular method for developing the em ployee training, however particular significant methods that would be measured. A perfect employee training and development program must be the mixture of knowledg e, career development and goal setting. These approach es will benefit the program to be more useful for the employees and organization. Today organizations are extensive ly using the Information Technology systems for the ir learning programs. Knowledge and information systems are rap idly moving ahead and those companies cannot survive that provide up to date knowledge of I.T. to their emplo yees. For a new task training must be given to empl oyees so that they can easily cope with new task. It should be th e responsibility of the organization to assured that employees have knowledge, skills and abilities, and these skills m ust be according to the required level of the job. Furthermore, when employees need required skills and knowledge it sho uld be provide them on the right time without any delay. In the result thereof, companies required to make sure tha t employee can learn whenever they required (Garger 1999). To complete this purpose organizations required the in ternet and computer based learning segments. The basic reason for career planning as quantity of employee training program is not merely to support employees to think that their employers are financing in their c areer, furthermore keep in mind that they help empl oyees to manage various characteristics of their lives and a clear promotion track. Employers cannot make promise with employees for their job security, but they provide them oppor tunities to improve their knowledge and skills, so that they can remain sustain in job market (Moses 1999). Career d evelopment of the employees should be established o n bright career path which employee can easily recognize and gave it worth (Nunn 2000). To achieve this purpose, employee must classify their work, work priorities and curre nt skills they have to do their job. Therefore, employees can start identify the jobs that would require in future and set of skills to manage those jobs (Moses 2000). As result thereof, employee should improve understanding to work, bett er accountability for career and strategy for action to attain upcoming goals. The main problem suffer by organizations is to comm it this practice, which may take some employees to leave the organization and look around for certain job vacanc ies outside the organization (O’Herron and Simonsen 1995). Furthermore, sometimes employees feel the risk of right sized of employee in the organization. The key element of career planning and employee development is goal se tting. Therefore it has been described that learning programs support employees to enhance their performance inst ead of just increasing their work competencies (Gerbman 2000). It is better to give the opportunity to employees t o perform their jobs in a better way and if they ne ed help, organizations must provide them proper tools to per form the job. Development program help the employee s to learn and facilitating them to become a critical philosop her (Garger 1999). Sears Roebuck & Co. remains care ful on this idea as organization doesn’t want that all employee s think similar but the organizations need to give those employees conceptual skills to think in a different way (Gerb man 2000). An employee from Tires Plus described that he educa ted additional about the organization instead of just doing his work and this assist him to think in what way he ca n positively influence on the goals of the organizational (Dobbs, 2000). Individual should improve their knowledge so that organizations get them hand to hand and pay them good European Journal of Business and Management ISSN 2222-1905 (Paper) ISSN 2222-2839 (Online) Vol.5, No.2, 2013 246 salary. It is the main responsibility of the organi zations to provide opportunities to their employees but individual should take initiative to use those opportunities f or the betterment of their future career (Garger 19 99). Employee training and development programs should create in a way that it not only accomplish its goals but have optimistic consequences on employee and organization. The orga nizations which are using employee development programs are getting positive results from the individuals b y using this program. 3.3 Individual Benefits from Training and Developme nt Program 3.3.1 Career Competencies Employees get a lot of benefits from the employee training and development program. They learn the sof t and technical skills as required by their jobs. In last 30 years unemployment is at its lowest rates which is not beneficial for the workers to start new job, if opportunities for growth are fewer (Dobbs 2000). Fresh university graduates mostly considering for a firm which provides intens ively training programs to their employees, but this idea is risky for organizations to lose fresh trained employees w ith couple of years (Feldman 2000). Professional wh ich are placed in the industry of information technology, identify that knowledge is authority and they required to r etain their abilities and talent according to current requireme nt of the market. Most of the employees recognize t he importance of training program and would like to increase thei r salary (Dillich 2000). It is also expected from the fresh graduate not appropriately equipped for the continually chan ging business environment (Gerbman 2000). Young professionals with entrepreneurial ambitions know that they have shortage of experience and money; hence they attemp t to join companies which provide training programs to prepar e their employees for the betterment of future (Feldman 2000). Employee development program help employees to surv ive in the future and develop their abilities to cope with new technologies. From many years the requirements for blue-collar jo bs is constant, and numerous companies have prepare d a modification for demanding learning software and pr ogrammed systems (Cunniff 2000). This requirement i s compelling workers to appraise their profession cap abilities to sustain their employment. Due to this situation numerous employees have rehabilitated their attitud e to acquire promoted inside their organizations to work and develop out of the organization (Feldman 2000). The refore workers used to prepare 10 year plan for their future and constantly change their plans after two years as pe r the change of technology and information (Wilson 2000). Tires Plus delivers training to promote a diverse career through the organization which comprises 80 hours t raining for supervisor to promote them to the manager (Dobbs 20 00). I-Cube, Information technology consulting firm in Massachusetts, provide employee development program for their employees which is named by I-Altitude and offer to fresh employees so that the can easily adjust th emselves in the organization (Fenn 1999). Employees understand that training program can directed to superior duti es and higher remuneration (Fenn 1999). Furthermore , helping workers to improve their skills and knowledge to co pe with the future requirements, lead to job satisfaction. 3.3.2 Employee Satisfaction Employees have no feeling about their organizations , if they think that their organizations are not caring about them (Garger 1999). Companies which are willing to spend money on their employees, give value to work with those companies, even though that investment eventually b enefits the organization (Wilson 2000). Companies w hich are providing the training and development programs for their employees are achieving high level of employ ee satisfaction and low employee turnover (Wagner 2000 ). Training increase organization’s reliability for the reason that employees recognize their organization is spen ding in their future career (Rosenwald 2000). Loyalty with the organization cannot be calculated but it is substantial to intrinsic reward that employee feel. Employee feels comfortable and wants to stay with t heir organization, when they feel they are putting their efforts and skills in the bottom line for their organizatio n (Logan 2000). Employees who are satisfied with th eir jobs, believe that their work has a purpose and important for the ir organization (Moses 2000). Usually the best perf ormers do not leave a job for the purpose of financial benefits. Though salary and benefits plays an important part in selecting and retention of the employees, employees are always ob serving the opportunities to acquire novel skills, to get the European Journal of Business and Management ISSN 2222-1905 (Paper) ISSN 2222-2839 (Online) Vol.5, No.2, 2013 247 encounter of different duties, and looking for pers onal and professional development (Wagner 2000). Th erefore, nourishing these requirements facilitates in figure up confidence, self-esteem and job gratification i n employees (Nunn, 2000). 3.3.3 Employee Performance Training effects on behavior of employees and their working skills which resulted in enhanced employee performance and further constructive changes (Satte rfield and Hughes 2007) that serves as increase emp loyee performance (Kraiger 2002). Arthur et al. (2003) de veloped an analysis of 1152 sample size from 165 re sources and revealed that in distinction with no-training or pr e-training conditions; training had commonly positi ve result on job-related performance. However, dissimilarities i n positions of effect sizes were not big, the efficiency of training vary regarding the training transfer technique and the skill being trained. Benefits of training program are also related to technical skills of the employees. For instance, Davis and Yi (2004) developed two researches with approximately 300 contributors with the help of behavior-model tr aining and remained capable to increase significantly computer skills. Psychologically practicing tasks permitted trainees to grow learned knowledge, abilities and t ask. Training is positively effects on the employee perf ormance of the employees. During a qualitative stud y concerning mechanics in India, Barber (2004) originates that o n-the-job training headed to superior novelty and implicit skills. Technical and professional skills are very importan t for the employees to perform a job in an effectiv e way. Providing training opportunities to employees can e nhance the performance of the employees. Reference to invention, training increased the educated mechanic s to figure up two Jeep bodies using only a homemad e hammer, chisel, and oxyacetylene welder. Concerning to impl icit skills, Barber described in his study that profession of a mechanic needs “feel” to remain successful. Barber (2004) described in the result of an effective training that a mechanic had worthy emotion of how to hit the metal at the particular spot so that work must be performed in a systematic and proper way. 3.4 Organizational Benefits from Training and Devel opment Program 3.4.1 Market Growth Employee development programs are important for any organization to stay solvent and competitive in the market. Though it is expensive for the organization to spen d the money on their employees but this investment is positive for the organizations to hold the place in the market. American Society for Training and Development menti oned two motives that are significant for employee’s knowled ge, first employees identify the worth of training and marketable by organization and second CEOs of the companies un derstand that how fast information is transferring in current business environment (Fenn, 2000). Greengard (2000) described that organizations are required to develop and maintain such learning environment for the employee s that expand the knowledge of organization and com petitive ability. However, employee training programs derive d through a high price, but have a positive impact on return-on-investment. Microsoft, and General Electr ic Company are entirely large effective organizations, and these organizations realize training opportunities as an investment (Kleiman 2000). Wanger (2000) described in his study that American Society for Training and Development found an assoc iation between financing in employee development program a nd higher revenues from stock market. American Society for Training and Development moreover originate that co mpanies who apply average of $1,575 each employee o n learning got 24 percent growth in gross profit and 218 percentage increase in revenue each employee in stead of those who spend fewer on employee training and developmen t, investing in employee development is a condition that is suitable for individual and organizations (Rosenwal d 2000). Furthermore, employee training and develop ment programs not only increase the profit of organizati ons but also provide difference within their native market. Organizations can practice training and development opportunities to support them available to the current employees, perspective employees, plus clients of t he company. GSD&M’s Idea U, assists employees to re cognize their characters and established that it has prepar ed people as superior contributors to business (Pet recca 2000). European Journal of Business and Management ISSN 2222-1905 (Paper) ISSN 2222-2839 (Online) Vol.5, No.2, 2013 248 Lastly, organizations can utilize employee training and development programs to improve their appearan ce as best employer in the job market. 3.4.2 Organizational Performance Training has been defined as mainly contributing fa ctor to the organizational effectiveness (Schuler and MacMillan 1984). Exploration on this topic recommends that in vestment in training and development program can be justified by the impact it creates to developed individual an d organizational effectiveness (Bartel, 2000). Furthermore, the earlier researches have mentioned causation between training and effectiveness of the organization (Blundell, Dearden, Meghir and Sianesi, 1999). Bartlett (2001) recommends that one of the glitches that is usually problematic to identify, is proposing an effective calculation of performance of the organization. Blundell et al. (1999) supported this by describing that lack of suitable data and m ethodological difficulties prevents the adequate assessment of impact of human capital appreciation and performanc e of organization. However, there is an increasing factor that Human resource management practices impacts on atti tudes and work-related manners (Allen et al., 2003). To evaluate the effectiveness of training and developm ent program it has been advised that check directly the relationship of training and organizational commitm ent. Further it has been revealed as certainly correlated to the efficiency of the organization (Bartlett 2001). The study proposes that constructive work-related p erformance and attitudes mainly depend on the perce ption of the employees as the employees think that their organiz ations are taking care of them (Allen et al., 2003). However, the same factor is reliable with the social exchange mo del; Blau (1964) suggested that the emotional agree ment between employer and employee are the central element of or ganizational performance. Gould-Williams (2007) pro posed that social exchange theory was originated by the organi zations when they decided to care the interest of their employees. Employees respond with optimistic attitudinal and b ehavioral replies which are supportive to their organization (Settoon, Bennett and Liden 1996). However training can be used to provoke the preferred results that may contain with enhanced organizational commitment (Bartlett 2 001). The current research proposed that the facility of training and development program is likely taken consent by employee that their organizations need to enter a social exchange with them. This social exchange agreement produces a durable psychological bond between emplo yee and organization (Garrow 2004). 3.4.3 Employee Retention The research described that employee retention is a challenging notion and there is no particular method to retain employees with the organization. Several organizati ons have revealed that one of the characteristic that help to retain employee is to offer them opportunities for improvi ng their learning (Logan 2000). Therefore, it has confirmed that there is strong relationship between employee train ing and development, and employee retention (Rosenw ald 2000). Companies should realize that experienced employees are important assets and companies have to suffer the challenge for retaining them (Garger 1999). Therefo re, companies which are providing training and deve lopment programs to their employees are getting success in retaining them. Sears has established that in localities where manager provide help to their employees to develop professionally, turnover is almost 40-50 percentage fewer than those stores where association with the managers do es not available (Logan 2000). On other side, numer ous employees participate in employee training programs are not assured of a conventional association between programs and employee retention (Rosenwald 2000); s everal managers found that positive learning atmosphere directed to higher retention rates (Dillich 2000). Organizations that are offering employee developmen t programs are getting success with retaining employees. An effective design of training program can also incre ase retention among employees. Employee retention i s a volunteer move by organizations to create an environment whic h involves employees for long term (Chaminade 2007) . For the description of more effective retention, researcher s have recommended that organizations may contain w ith training and development program that classifies volunteer a ssignments, requirements, and expectations (Seigel and DeLizia 1994). “To retain employees, organizations need to think seriously about their investment in training and development” (Leonard, 1998). Fenn (1999) presented in his study that the normal monthly turnover at Unitel has European Journal of Business and Management ISSN 2222-1905 (Paper) ISSN 2222-2839 (Online) Vol.5, No.2, 2013 249 decreased from 12 percent to 6 percent since they i naugurated Unitel University in 1998. Though numero us persons involved with employee training and development pro grams are not assured of a direct association between the programs and employee retention (Rosenwald 2000). H owever, specific numbers of managers discover that a constructive learning environment pointed to higher retention rates (Dillich 2000). 4.0 Results The facts in current research can be utilized in nu merous diverse ways by a diversity of organizations . The significant opinion is that companies essentially p ut the highest worth on their employees, and develo p beliefs and practices that show the highest commitment of the e mployees. Employees required feeling like they are producing a noteworthy modification to corporate success and pr oviding positive results and intentions to do their jobs well. Furthermore, it is difficult for most of the compan ies to develop corporate level institutions and provide extensive opportunities for internal promotions, but it is ea sy for organizations to help their employees in mak ing career goals and action plans for the development of their caree r. Certain organizations may discover that they dev elop employees who apply their abilities and skills for further or ganizations; however the organizations also find th at they are increasing a sense of loyalty from other employees. In this study there is a substantial support for individuals and organization to get the several benefits from traini ng program. Such benefits contain efficiency and fac tors that related directly or indirectly to the employee perf ormance. This study has collected support for the p ositive outcomes of training program for the organizations. These be nefits comprises better organizational performance (e.g., profitability, efficiency, and output) and further b enefits that directly or indirectly related to employee performance. 5.0 Suggestion for Future Research In this study we furthermore identify particular in structions for future research. First, we propose that the benefits of training might have a positive effect like as indiv idual employee benefits, which later affect organiz ational results. However, research is required to recognize the feat ures that enable a smooth transfer of employee deve lopment benefits on different level. Furthermore, some spec ial questions of vertical transfer that how training and development directly influence on individual and or ganizational level. A conceptual model of this process is available and there has been little empirical resea rch on this topic (Kozlowski et al. 2000). Secondly, there is a gap existing between the appli ed and academic literature concerning the usage of cycle time as a factor to measure usefulness of training and develo pment program (Holton 2003). The size of effect on the quality of performance may not the similar as individuals and organizations recognize and apply solutions to new problems. Organizations are realizing the benefits of employe e training and development programs as they are rec eiving pressure from the competitor market. Research is re quired concerning the factors that can raise the awareness of the benefits of training and development at numerous st ages of exploration. This research may get help from primary European Journal of Business and Management ISSN 2222-1905 (Paper) ISSN 2222-2839 (Online) Vol.5, No.2, 2013 250 studies on the effects of training and development on novelty and performance adaptability of employee s and organizations. Third, while the character of affect has been recog nized in the amount of reactions to training and de velopment, affect could perform an extra central part in the t raining and development process in general. Previou s research has concentrated on the affiliation between liking a tr aining program and performance of employee (Alliger et al. 1997), however research has given fewer considerations to relationships between affective situations throughout training and learning program. Aguinis (2009) defined that p roviding employees training and development opportu nities can be perceived a meaning that the organization cares for their employees. This perception in employees m ay produce benefits even though training and development struc ture and transfer might be not optimum. In short, future research on this topic might be extent that which training o pportunities are observes as a message that the org anization cares for employees and create important message in curre nt corporate world afflicted by downsizing and employee layoffs. 6.0 Implication for Practice The organizations those are capable to recognize th e benefits of training that are acknowledged in this study are able to move away from observing the training purpose as an operational function (Fox 2003). For instance, a consulting organization PricewaterhouseCoopers has decrease co sts in several areas; however the organization increased its investment in employee training to around $120 mill ion each year. One more top consulting company, Boo z Allen Hamilton, have faith in developing employees as a c ontinuing competitive benefit and manages their learning functions as a revenue centers (Fox 2003). Managers of these organizations select knowledge and information regarding to business concerned outcomes to make co nclusions about how to assign resources including training events resources (Mattson 2005). Training is a meth od that emphases on ideals and helpful organizational culture, including career advancement, monetary cuts and lim itations, extremely competitive environments, and market driven philosophies (McGuire et al. 2005). Evidentl y keep a record of the benefits of training program and it planning, delivering, and evaluating by utilizing t he information involved in this study will permit t he human resource management department to be a strategic or ganizational and move away from the undesirable sug gestions related to this function (Hammonds 2005). 7.0 Conclusion In this study we take the fact of observation that training leads to important benefits for individuals and organizations. The existing analysis of literature proposes that these benefits vary from individual a nd organizational performance. To understand the benefits of training and development program, we implemented different level and different disciplinary perspective of employee deve lopment program. In our study we also involved the discussion, how to increase the benefits of training. These fea tures include giving attention to the training design, delivery, and transfer of training. After completing the study on this topic we strongly believe that it is very beneficial for the organizations to develop the employee development p rograms. If there is a systematic training and development program for the employees the companies will harves t its profit from the market and remain competitive in the job market. An organized and efficient development prog ram with supportive apparatuses will significantly assist the organizations to retain the most valued human resou rce, especially those who have a lot of experience with the organization. If organizations are capable to suppo rt all employees in meeting their requirements then both, employees and organizations will get the long term benefits. It is also very important for the organizations to timely evaluate the success of employee training and devel opment program. References: • Allen, D.G., Shore, L.M., and Griffeth, R.W. (2003) . The Role of Perceived Organizational Support and Supportive Human Resource Practices in the Turnover Process. Journal of Management , 29, 1, 99–118. • Alliger GM, Tannenbaum SI, Bennett W Jr, Traver H, Shotland A. (1997). A meta-analysis of the relations among training criteria. Journal of Personal Psychology , 50:341–58. 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