See attachment

NSU Cover Sheet

Nova Southeastern University

H. Wayne Huizenga College

of Business & Entrepreneurship

Assignment for Course: HRM 5360 – Human Resource Development

Submitted to: Dr. Baiyun Gong

Title of Assignment: Team Report Part 1- Employee Wellness for Receptionist

CERTIFICATION OF AUTHORSHIP: I certify that I am the author of this paper and that

any assistance I received in its preparation is fully acknowledged and disclosed in the

paper. I have also cited any sources from which I used data, ideas, some time, or words,

either quoted directly or paraphrased. I also certify that this paper was prepared by me

specifically for this course.

Submitted by: [Authors’ information removed]

Team Report Part 1: Employee Wellness for Receptionist


Table of Contents

Introduction 4

Task Analysis Theories 4

Needs Assessment – Task Analysis 6

Job description – Receptionist 6

Time-Sampling Method & Importance & Activity Level 7

KSAOs Needed to Perform the Job 8

Identification of areas that can most benefit from training and HRD 9

Prioritize Training Needs 10

Person Analysis Theories 10

Needs Assessment – Person Analysis 11

Conclusion 13

References 15

Team Report Part 1: Employee Wellness for Receptionist


List of Illustrations

Table 1.1 Time-Sampling Method & Importance & Activity Level 8

Team Report Part 1: Employee Wellness for Receptionist


The beginning of any training and development program process starts with the needs

analysis. The needs analysis identifies and articulates an organization’s human resource

development needs (Werner, 2017). The needs assessment includes three levels of needs analysis:

organizational, task, and person. In the position of office Receptionist, the human resource

development topic our group has chosen to explore is employee wellness, particularly exercise in

the workplace. Physical exercise is a cornerstone of health and wellbeing, and several studies

provide solid evidence that targeted physical exercise is efficient in managing musculoskeletal

pain that occurs in a work-related context (Gjelstrup, Bredahl, Særvoll, Kirkelund, Sjøgaard,

Andersen, 2015).

This assignment will examine the techniques to identify training needs in employee

wellness through a task and person analysis. This includes exploring job descriptions, analyzing

established training for job descriptions, and providing training reforms.

Task Analysis Theories

A needs assessment, also known as a needs analysis, is a process in which an organization’s

human resource development needs are brought to light (Werner, 2017). This helps to identify

goals for the organization and a means to achieve these goals, gaps in skills required to achieve

optimal performance, gaps to perform the job successfully in the future, and the different

conditions in which the development will occur (Werner, 2017). There are also multiple needs,

such as diagnostic needs, analytic needs, and compliance needs (Werner, 2017). By understanding

the diagnostic, analytic, and compliance needs for specific positions in organizations, human

resource professionals can develop a thorough needs assessment.

Team Report Part 1: Employee Wellness for Receptionist


A needs assessment contains multiple parts, one of which is the task analysis. Task

analysis, also known as operations analysis, collects data about a particular job or numerous jobs

used to determine what employees need to be taught to reach optimal performance (Werner, 2017).

The outcome of this analysis includes meeting the standards of performance, understanding how

these tasks need to be performed to meet these standards, and the knowledge, skills, abilities, and

other characteristics (KSAOs) required for employees to meet their standards (Werner, 2017). In

other words, this describes what needs to be done to complete a process. There are several

techniques for obtaining data for task analysis, such as developing duties and responsibilities in

job descriptions, asking people in the job or affected by the job questions, and reviewing outside

research related to this job (Werner, 2017).

Task analysis has multiple points to consider. These points include obtaining support for a

needs analysis from managers, supervisors, and employees, using various methods to identify and

resolve discrepancies, allowing for quantitative analysis of which tasks are benefited from training,

and viewing needs broadly can help organizations build better support for training programs

(Werner, 2017). Certain benchmark practices can be done to assess these needs adequately. The

practice we will follow is the five-step process which includes developing an overall job

description, identifying the task by describing what should be done and what is done in the task,

defining the KSAOs to perform the job, identifying the areas that can benefit from training, and

lastly prioritizing the regions that can benefit from exercise (Werner, 2017). This process was

chosen as a result of combining the methods mentioned above of task analysis.

The receptionist position was chosen because these employees are the first point of contact

for the organization, and they represent our employer brand. We have noticed that their customer

service skills have decreased and in speaking with these employees, we uncovered that their

Commented [BG1]: This section is generally well written
by this point.

Commented [BG2]: This sounds fictional and does not
need to be here.

Team Report Part 1: Employee Wellness for Receptionist


physical health has been affecting their job performance. To perform a task analysis for a

receptionist, the five-step process will need to be used to understand further the training program

that will be developed. First, a job description will be identified for the receptionist position. Next,

from this job description, we will differentiate what should be done in this position from what is

being done by using one of the five methods: stimulus-response feedback, time sampling, critical

incident techniques, job inventories, or job-duty-task method. Following this, information on

KSAOs will be identified to understand what receptionists need training on. Afterward, task ratings

will be used to determine the importance of each task, difficulty, ease of learning, and ability to

acquire them during the job. Lastly, these training needs for receptionists will be prioritized to

determine the training program.

Needs Assessment – Task Analysis

Job description – Receptionist

To launch task analysis, the first step is to develop the overall description of the job that

needs to be analyzed (Werner, 2017). The goal of the receptionist position is to be presentable,

friendly, and professional and to assist visitors, customers, callers, and company employees in

carrying out their job duties. Receptionists are gatekeepers of the company and have to look

happy, friendly, and presentable to make a pleasant impression of the company and provide the

best customer service. Using ZipRecruter receptionist job description and personal work

knowledge, we developed a list of tasks that are common for this position (Front desk receptionist

job description sample template, 2019).

Tasks and responsibilities

● Answers phone calls in support of the company operations

Commented [BG3]: Why not pin point which one?

Team Report Part 1: Employee Wellness for Receptionist


● Assists visitors by welcoming them and directing them accordingly

● Informs company employees about visitor’s arrival

● Answers visitors’ questions within his/her competency

● Keeps visitors roster and issues visitor badges

● Directs visitors according to the department directories

● Supports security and communication system

● Coordinates with employees within organizations, with company visitors and


● Develops filing systems for his/her work unit and exercises it

● Manages in and outgoing mail and couriers

● Orders front desk supplies and maintain an inventory

● Keeps front reception area tidy and presentable

Time-Sampling Method & Importance & Activity Level

The time sampling method is the second essential method for task identification (Werner, 2017).

The HR team needs to shadow and observe the company receptionists as they are performing their

duties so they can get a better understanding of the tasks, timing for these tasks, and time spent on

the task sitting or standing. This method involves a trained person overseeing receptionists and

documenting the nature and frequency of the assessed employee`s activities. It allows having a

clear picture of the job by observing random intervals over some time (Werner, 2017).

Team Report Part 1: Employee Wellness for Receptionist


# Task Frequency



Importance Activity



Answers phone calls in support of the

company operations

Daily 3-4 High Sedentary

2 Assists visitors by welcoming them and

directing them accordingly

Daily 1-2 High Sedentary

3 Informs company employees about

visitor’s arrival by phone

Daily 0.5 High


4 Answers visitors’ questions within

his/her competency

Daily 1 High Sedentary

5 Keeps visitors roster and issues visitor


Daily 0.25 High Sedentary

6 Directs visitors according to the

department directories

Daily 0.25 High Sedentary

7 Supports security and communication


Daily 0.25 High Sedentary

8 Coordinates with employees within

organizations, with company visitors

and customers by phone and email

Daily 1 High Sedentary

9 Keeps reception area tidy and


Daily 0.25 High Sedentary

10 Develops filing systems for his/her

work unit and files the documents

Twice a


0.25 Medium Standing

11 Manages in and outgoing mail and


Twice a


0.25 Medium Standing

12 Orders front desk supplies and maintain

an inventory

Once a


0.25 Medium Standing

KSAOs Needed to Perform the Job

Education and Requirements:

● High school diploma or associate degree

Commented [BG4]: This table should have a title for itself
and be mentioned as “Table 1” in the context. Learn more
about APA.

Commented [BG5]: This is a good demonstration of the
observation. If the numbers are hypothetical, please say
something like “the number of hours are hypothetical for
the purpose to demonstrate the potential findings.”

Team Report Part 1: Employee Wellness for Receptionist


● Familiarity with phone systems

● Knowledge of Microsoft Office

● Qualifications/Skills

● Experience in using office equipment (e.g., fax machines, office phones, and printers)

● Professional attitude and presentable appearance

● Excellent written and verbal communication skills

● Excellent organizational skills

● Multitasking and time-management skills

● Ability to prioritize tasks

● Friendly customer service attitude

Identification of areas that can most benefit from training and HRD

Brisbane (2019) confirms that most of the day, the receptionist spends sitting at the front

desk, answering calls, greeting costumes, and providing support to the operations units. After we

Time-Sampling Method & Importance & Activity Level analysis in a previous stage of our needs

assessment, it was discovered that the sedentary part of the receptionist’s job takes more than 6

hours a day. Bontrup, C., Taylor, W., Fliesser, M., Visscher, R., Green, TWippert, P., & Zemp, R

report that “group of workers who spend most of their work time in the seated position and deal

with stress-related interactions such as difficult or aggressive customers over the phone or multiple

visitors reported more musculoskeletal disorders of the lower back”. Analysis of job descriptions

and responsibilities along with job sampling serves as information sources for our needs

assessment. Taking into consideration that our receptionists spend most of the day in a sedentary

position due to the intensity, importance of their work, and high maintenance of their customer

service skills without the ability to move around, stretch or exercise we see that there is a need for

Commented [BG6]: This citation is far from APA

Team Report Part 1: Employee Wellness for Receptionist


employee wellness training to help our company gatekeepers to have less back tension, feel more

relaxed, and productive at work, and provide best customer service.

Prioritize Training Needs

We carefully evaluated the problem of extensive sedentary hours for our receptionists and

based on the article “ Low back pain and its relationship with sitting behavior among sedentary

office workers study”, it can affect workers behavior, work performance, customer service skills,

and job satisfaction (Bontrup et al., 2019). Our goal is for our frontline workers to be happy,

healthy, and productive. We see the need to educate our receptionists who are the representatives

of the company brand about the importance of light physical activity during the workday and

provide examples of easy and pleasant exercises that they can perform at their desks and can repeat

multiple times a day.

Our goal is to create and structure the training the way the receptionists would enjoy,

understand, and use it with pleasure. For the content and the duration of the training, we need to

consider their level of education and age to be sure it is easy, fun, and engaging. We also have to

consider their busy schedule at work and arrange the replacements of our company interns and

administrative assistants, so the receptionists can attend training during the working hours and

entirely focus on the content. For better planning and design of the training, we have to conduct

Person Analysis.

Person Analysis Theories

Person analysis is determined by the training needs of employees (Werner, 2017). Feedback

is typically given between employee and supervisor, but it can sometimes be given between the

employee’s peers, customers, and direct reports to help provide input for those person’s needs

(Werner, 2017). When collecting data for a person analysis, there are two components that this

Commented [BG7]: Try shorter but less choppy

Commented [BG8]: These two goals are different, and
you need to make more explanations to clarify their

Commented [BG9]: Feedback of what?

Team Report Part 1: Employee Wellness for Receptionist


should consist of. These two components include summary person analysis and diagnostic person

analysis. Werner (2017) states that a summary person analysis is how the overall performance is

determined by the employee, whereas the diagnostic person analysis is discovering the employee’s


Performance appraisals are not always accurate when it comes to discovering the

performance of the employee. The manager needs to take into consideration many things when

conducting an assessment of an employee. A common approach is a 360-degree appraisal which

consists “of using multiple sources to gather performance information” (Werner, 2017). When

using this approach, different viewpoints are taken into consideration from the employees’

performance, which would come from subordinates, peers, and supervisors. This is effective

because this type of input creates an accurate appraisal from different viewpoints and allows the

information to be more precise.

Developmental needs are also a part of a person’s analysis. This data is used to create a

plan to help the employee increase their knowledge or skills. The most common system that is

used today is the human resource information system (HRIS). This system can be used for training

needs assessment (Werner, 2017). Organizations will use this information to develop the best

strategy to determine the training needs of their employee (Werner, 2017).

Needs Assessment – Person Analysis

When formulating a needs assessment, an important source of information for developing

training needs is the employees themselves (Werner, 2017). Studies have concluded that the needs

assessment process is best determined by obtaining information from a direct source. Considering

the two components of formal person analysis, (1) summary person analysis and (2) diagnostic

person analysis, a needs assessment is determined by a survey given directly to employees. In this

Commented [BG10]: OK

Team Report Part 1: Employee Wellness for Receptionist


case, a survey would be administered directly to the receptionists. To evaluate a basic level of

training needs, the survey should include the following type of questions:

Assessment’s questions:

1. What is your gender?

2. What is your age?

3. What is your nationality?

4. What is the state where you are located to perform office work?

5. What is your highest level of education completed?

6. What languages do you speak?

7. Are you able to work under pressure?

8. Are you able to multitask?

9. Are you organized?

10. Are you able to sit for a long period?

11. Are you able to lift 20 pounds?

12. How many times do you practice a physical activity?

13. Are you currently experiencing neck and/or back pain due to a lack of mobility?

14. Are you currently experiencing cramps and/or pain in the extremities?

15. Are you currently experiencing eye discomfort or fatigue due to long exposition

to electronic devices?

The above survey questions provide clear details about the receptionist workforce. Based

on these answers, an appropriate HRD can be implemented. The assessment generates accurate

information to support formulating a plan of corresponding training and wellness program based

on a diverse workforce. Our HRD training would consider integrative programs to respond to each

of the individual receptionist’s needs. Individual differences by a person will be considered and

evaluated by gender, age, nationality, language, culture, work location, level of education, personal

Commented [BG11]: For a survey, not only should there
be questions, you also need to identify scales.

Commented [BG12]: Does this matter to the training

Commented [BG13]: Why does this matter?

Commented [BG14]: In a day, a week, or a month?

Commented [BG15]: This question asks two things for
one answer: pain and the reason of pain. It creates
confusion for respondents.

Commented [BG16]: See above.

Team Report Part 1: Employee Wellness for Receptionist


skills for communication, organization, working under pressure in a fast-paced environment,

capacity to work seated most of the time, and occasionally lifting no more than 20 pounds. Beyond

workforce training, the needs assessment – person analysis can provide information to develop a

wellness program that takes into consideration the health attributes and general level of physical

activity of our workforce.

We gathered information from 30 receptionist employees present at the company. Survey

respondents highlight our diverse workforce across many of the survey questions. For example,

in terms of the highest level of education completed, the receptionist staff includes twenty-four

employees with a high school diploma, four employees with an associate’s degree, and two

employees with a bachelor’s degree. In terms of age, the group’s age range is from 19 to 35 years


The purpose of data collection is its application. In this case, it is fundamental to consider

the complexity of the training material about the level of education and age. The information of

the training and wellness component must be simple, clear, and concise for a practical

understanding of the entire receptionist staff.

Some members of the receptionists’ staff have reported neck and back pain. The company

has recently changed its office equipment to an ergonomic style to offer comfort in the work

environment. Orthopedic chairs and back support pillows have been implemented, in addition to

resting step tools to lift legs during the workday.


We as a group have identified tasks that are part of a receptionist’s duties to benefit from a

wellness program through the task analysis. Within multiple evaluations administered in the person

analysis stage, we can calculate the number of physical activities the Receptionist is exposed to

Commented [BG17]: The purpose of this detail should be
better clarified. That is, why do you mention this fact?

Team Report Part 1: Employee Wellness for Receptionist


and determine what is needed to get them more physical throughout the day to minimize the effects

of sitting at a desk all day. The Receptionists would benefit from a program that automatically tells

them they need to stop what they are doing and get active, if only for a few seconds. Training also

needs to be done quarterly with a trainer who gives the Receptionist ideas on what they can do

throughout the day to avoid injuries. To be effective in this analysis, the Human Resource

Development team needs to consider and address to ensure the safety of the Receptionists at the


Team Report Part 1: Employee Wellness for Receptionist



Bontrup, C., Taylor, W. R., Fliesser, M., Visscher, R., Green, T., Wippert, P.-M., & Zemp,

R. (2019, July 15). Low back pain and its relationship with sitting behavior among

sedentary office workers. Applied Ergonomics. Retrieved November 11, 2021, fr. (n.d.).

Bredahl, T, Særvoll, C, Kirkland, L, Sjøgaard, G, Anderson, G, When Intervention Meets

Organisation, a Qualitative Study of Motivation and Barriers to Physical Exercise at the

Workplace, The Scientific World Journal, vol.15, p.12, 2015


Brisbane, H. (2019, September 3). What are sedentary work duties? Career Trend. Retrieved

November 10, 2021, from

duties.html. (n.d.).

Front desk receptionist job description sample template. ZipRecruiter. (2019, November 26).

Retrieved November 10, 2021, from

receptionist-job-description-sample-template/. (n.d.).

Werner, J. M. (2017). Human resource development: Talent development. Nielsen Book data.


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